Neuroprosthetics, brain-computer interfaces and optogenetics
Our experience of reality is constrained by our biology. Our brain cells in combination with our sensory organs (i.e., eyes, ears), create systems that shape how we perceive the world. This system has a very limited range. We only see 'less than a 10-trillionth' of the world and of what’s happening around us at all times.
According to neuroscientist David Eagleman this doesn't have to be the case anymore. Eagleman recently pointed out at a TED talk that it is truly possible to add new senses using sensory substitution.
Sensory substitution is a non-invasive technique for circumventing the loss of one sense by feeding sensory data through other unusual sensory channels. Eagleman noted that the brain can learn to extract the meaning of such information streams. "We are leveraging this technique to develop a non-invasive, low-cost vibratory vest to allow those with deafness or severe hearing impairments to perceive auditory information through small vibrations on their torso."
We could develop wireless, brain-to-brain communication, something called synthetic telepathy, and send messages to each other by thinking them.